TEAPOT: The electronically actuated pneumatically operated transmitter

the electronically actuated pneumatically operated transmitterA couple days ago, before the NAQP-CW, Pete K6BFA mentioned that before the start of the contest, some Boy Scouts would come over to the club station to talk about learning morse code. This wasn’t about working towards a radio or electronics merit badge: they wanted to learn the code for team competitions in which they are required to send messages to each other in the field using whistles.

Before they came over, we thought about how people learn code, and figured that for their purposes, they could use traditional tools for learning morse code (like the LCWO site, MorseResource, and various programs for PC or smart phone), but they’d be best served by practicing with actual whistles.

This got the gears turning, and more out of curiosity than practicality, I decided to make an electronic whistle blower that could be driven by audio output from any of these practice tools. I had thought through a similar problem in developing the androidomatic keyer, although unlike the androidomatic keyer that was meant to operate without external power (other than the audio signal itself), for this project it was reasonable to use a nominally 12V power source since the contraption would require some kind of air compressor that would have similar power requirements.

The most exotic component in the keyer (aside from the whistle, which is also not typically found in my projects) is a normally closed 12V solenoid valve (Adafruit, #996). This is a brass valve, which is listed as a fluid-control valve, but seems to work just fine for air.  The valve has 1/2″ threads on each side, and I had no problem finding connectors for it at my local hardware store. Per a chart on the Adafruit website, the solenoid draws 3A at 12V. The website also recommends putting a 1N4001 snubber diode across the solenoid leads, so that’s just what I did.

The solenoid is driven by a vox circuit built around a 4558 (741c equivalent) op amp via a STP16NF06 N-channel power mosfet (incidentally, the same one that is used in the Texas Topper QRP amplifier). The top of the MOSFET sticks out of my box because I threw the whole thing together quickly the morning of the contest and didn’t want to bend the transistor down. Also, I wasn’t sure how much heat it would need to dissipate, so I gave it some breathing room.

Compressed air is provided by a 12V air mattress inflator — a glorified waffle fan. These are usually bundled with air mattresses or rafts, but I bought this one as a replacement at Walmart for about $12. The rest of the assembly is a matter of plumbing. I obtained some 1/2″ plastic connectors and modified one to fit onto the pump, and with some careful glue-gunning, embedded a whistle in the other. Originally, I inserted a T-joint and played around with improvised pressure relief valves and/or a balloon to serve as a capacitance vessel because I was worried that the abrupt shut off of flow would strain the compressor. I guess there is enough leakage in the pump itself that this is not a problem, though, because it works fine to simply connect the pump to the solenoid valve. The pump comes with instructions that it should not be used continuously for more than about 15 minutes without some cool-down period. That seemed fine for my application, which is deafening after a few minutes.

I had supposed that morse code sent by whistle would need to be slower than we’re used to hearing on the radio, but as you can see in the demo, the solenoid has no problem keying at a 20 words per minute. I assume that people could achieve a similar effect by tonguing the whistle like a recorder.

We had a good session with the scouts, and the TEAPOT was a hit, leading to a brief discussion of electronic projects, robotics and flame throwers. After our session on morse code, they  popped into the radio room, where the club had already started the NAQP contest, so they also got to see morse code being used to communicate.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.